Concept Of Communication & Characteristics of Communication
Business Communication – Paper 1 – CSEET
Communication is a life skill. It is an essential attribute of any living being. The important feature of the human being is being able to act and react. The significance of the communication gets in where an expression or opinion emerges out of one.
For instance, if a person in hungry and needs something to eat and satisfy his hunger it is two things that we should look at. Firstly, the hunger felt by the person is the feeling that impacts him. But he secondly his reaction to express it by asking for food or gesture to show is hunger is the part where communication begins. It is the way we express.
Now in CSEET objective question point of view let’s get along with meaning, types and important concept of communication in a granulated form. Table of Content:
- Communication Definition
- Characteristics of Communication
- Types Of Communication
- Means of Communication
- Significance Of Business Communication
- Communication Process
- Principles of Effective Communication
- Flow of Communication
- Barriers Of Communication
The word ‘communicate’ has been derived from the Latin word ‘Communis’, which means to ‘share’.Communication is the expression of facts, opinions, ideas or feelings. It is a process by which information is exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbols, signs or behavior.
In communication, there are two people in the play, a Sender and a Receiver. The exchange of information between them in any form can be termed as communication. For the communication to be successful, the exchange of ideas and information must result in convey and understanding its intended meaning.
When one communicates to transact some commercial activity, that is, providing goods or services, with the intention of generating profits, it is termed as Business Communication.
Characteristics of Communication
- Communication is essentially a two-way process
- It is an ongoing process and pervasive in nature
- It consists not only of facts but ideas and emotions too, a gesture, sign or symbol etc
- It is goal-oriented. Both the parties sender and receiver should be aware of the common goal to understand the
- purpose of the communication and react to it.
- It is an inter-disciplinary science. Knowledge from various sciences are used in communication
Types of Communication
Communication may be broadly divided into two types:
- Internal and
When people within the organisation communicate with one another, it is said to be an internal communication. Employees of an organisation do so to work as a team and realize their common goals.
Internal communication could be official or unofficial. It could be individual to individual, individual to group, group to individuals, department to department, etc. Most of the internal communication is in the oral form and the tone is generally informal.
People also communicate within the organisation at a personal level. This is known as informal communication. A good example is that of grapevine, which is present in some measure everywhere. If the atmosphere is secretive, it encourages the spread of rumors and half truths.
When the people in an organisation communicate with anyone outside the organisation it is called external communication. These people may be clients or customers, dealers or distributors, media, government agencies, general public, regulatory bodies, authorities, etc. Letters and circulars, Pricelists, Manuals, Purchase Orders, Customized reports, Brochures and service calls, Tender documents, Advertisements, Customer’ feedback material are all external communication methods.
Modern business houses spend considerable time, money and effort on improving their public image since they realize that they are dependent on external support. External communication has been mainly formal and largely documented, but there is an increasing trend to make it informal.
Means of Communication
The means or methods of communication are broadly classifiedinto
- Verbal communication entails use of words to convey messages either in speech or through writing; and
- Non-verbal communication where messages are communicated through body language (i.e.) facial expressions and gestures
It is a written or a spoken message that uses words to exchange ideas/ information. Words are selected in phrases, sentences and paragraphs depending upon the results the verbal communication are trying to achieve. The means of verbal communication are:
- Written communication
- Oral communication
- Visual communication
- Audio-visual communication.
It is an unspoken or unwritten message that uses body language. This may be used by itself e.g., frowning or smiling at someone or along with oral communication. The entire body language, from large gestures to proximity with the listener, may help emphasize the contents of the message. Apparently, if the non-verbal communication is absent, it leaves the recipient guessing. Non-verbal communication includes-
- Facial expressions
- Eye contact
- Nodding the head
- Physical appearances
Significance of Business Communication
- Communication and effectiveness have an influence to success in business. It necessity is recognized due to the following reasons:
- Increase in Size: An efficient system of communication is required to carry out its activities across the world successfully.
- Growing Specialization: Sound communication is essential for ensuring mutual cooperation and understanding among different departments without which no organization can function smoothly.
- Cut-throat Competition: Persuasive communication in the form of advertisements, personal contacts and publicity becomes essential to survive in the race of competition.
- Human &Public Relations: Effective communication between management and employees is necessary to develop mutual trust and confidence. Regular exchange of information and ideas between managers and union officials helps them to maintain healthy relations with one another.
- Similarly, the business has to keep the Government, distributors, suppliers, investors, and other sections of society well-informed about its contribution to society. Public relations help businesses to improve its image in society,and big enterprises employee professional experts for this purpose.
- Personal Asset: Communication skill is essential for success in every job. The job as the case may be demand us to deliver speeches, write documents, and conduct interviews and few jobs need even a higher degree of communication skills. The ability to communicate effectivelyis equally essential for promotion in career.
The process of communication basically flows from the sender to receiver with intent to expect the receiver to understand the message that has been communicated, be it a fact, opinion or information whatsoever. The process travels in the following step by step flow:
Sender: A person from whom the message is generated or the one who sends the message.
Receiver: A person who is the receiver of the message or whom the message is delivered to.
Develop an Idea: It is an idea or thought which the sender wishes to transmit. This is the key step, without a worthwhile message all further steps becomes useless.
Encode: The idea is encoded with suitable words, charts, or symbols for transmission. This is where the sender determines the method of transmitting the message.
Transmit: The developed message is transmitted by the method chosen. Senders also choose certain channels and communicate with careful timing, but they try to keep their communication channels free of barriers.
Receive: Clear reception of the message is a condition precedent to its effective interpretation, storage, and use. In an interpersonal mode, it would involve attentive listening too.
Decode: Next step is to decode the message so that it can be understood. The sender wants the receiver to understand the message exactly as intended. But, the receiver sometimes does not understand exactly what the sender intends. Hence, the sender must before land assess the abilities of the receiver to make the
Feedback: Feedback is the receiver’s response to the sender’s message. Feedback enables the sender to know whether or not his message has been received and interpreted correctly.
Principles of Effective Communication
As quoted earlier, communication benefits the business only when it is effective. Effective communication depends mainly on three things: “understandable messages, the credibility of the sender, and how the message is affecting the receiver.”
The Seven C’s of Effective Communication
- Clarity of expression,
- Completeness of information,
- Conciseness of message,
- Concreteness in presentation,
- Courtesy towards the recipient,
- Correctness of facts, and
- Consideration for a receiver.
Apart from the above Principles, the following guidelines ensure effective communication:
- Choose the right means and mode
- Own your messages
- Offer complete and relevant information
- Obtain feedback
- Think of the recipient
- Verbal and Non-verbal congruence
- Repeat if necessary
- Do not judge
- Rely on facts
Flow of Communication
The flow of communication in an organisation depends on its size, structure and philosophy. Smaller organizations, with fewer levels of hierarchy and people may be having fewer communication problems. In a larger organisation with many hierarchical levels, the process is more complicated.The flow or pattern of communication may be as below:
Downward Flow: Traditional organizations have a vertical structure. All the important decisions are taken at the top. These are communicated through different levels of hierarchy to the workers.
Upward Flow: The role of workers inthe progress of industry has begun to be appreciated. The result has been an increase in the flow of upward communication.
Diagonal Flow: Diagonal communication is based on cooperation, goodwill and respect between the parties concerned.
Horizontal Flow: This type of communication flow usually takes place between people of the same status/level of hierarchyin the organization.
Barriers to Communication
Communication failures may have serious effects that affect personal or professional relationships to a greater extent. Failure to communicate effectively within the organisation, may cause disruption or delays in achieving targets.
Communication failures may be caused due to many reasons. A few of them are as follows:
- Lack of planning
- False assumptions
- Passing Judgments
- Implied meanings
- Lack of Trust
Overcoming Barriers to Communication
In order to remove hindrances in the way of communication the following steps are worth consideration:
- Clarify Ideas before Communication
- Communicate According to the Need of the Receiver
- Consult Others before Communication
- Be Aware of Language, Tone and Content of Message
- Convey Things of Help and Value to the Listener
- Ensure Proper Feedback
- Consistency of Message
- Follow up Communication
- Be a Good Listener
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