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Introduction to Computer : Basic Concepts

Basic Concepts of Computer : Introduction to Computer for gov exam 2018

Computer Awareness – Basic Concepts of Computer : Introduction to Computer

Basic Concepts of Computer : A computer system is a combination of hardware and software. The physical and tangible parts/components of a computer that can be seen and touched are known as Hardware. When one looks at the computer system, he/she is actually looking at the computer hardware. Hardware consists of the physical components of a computer system like input devices (keyboard, mouse, scanner etc.), output devices (monitor, printer, speaker etc.), processing device (CPU) and the storage device (Compact disk, hard disk, DVDs etc.).

Software represents the set of programs and instructions that govern the operation of a computer system. A computer system cannot do anything on its own. It must be instructed to perform a specific task and therefore, to solve a problem the user has to specify the sequence of instructions which a computer must follow.  Such a sequence of instructions is called program and is written in a language understood by computer.


Features of a Computer System : Introduction to Computer

Basic Concepts of Computer : Introduction to Computer for gov exam 2018

Memory Units:

4 bit = 1 nibble

8 bit = 1 byte

1024 B = 1 KB (Kilo Byte)

1024 KB = 1 MB (Mega Byte)

1024 MB = 1 GB (Giga Byte)

1024 GB = 1 TB (Tera Byte)

1024 TB = 1 PB (Peta Byte)

1024 PB = 1 XB (Exa Byte)

1024 XB = 1 ZB (Zeta Byte)

1024 ZB = 1 YB (Yota Byte)

Important Computer Extensions:

  1. .doc– Microsoft Word Document.
  2. .docx– Microsoft Word Open XML Document.
  3. .tex– LaTeX Source Document.
  4. .mp3– MP3 Audio File.
  5. .wps– Microsoft Works Word Processor Document.
  6. .txt– Plain Text File.
  7. .odt– Open Document Text Document.
  8. .dat– Data File.
  9. .pps– PowerPoint Slide Show.
  10. .ppt– PowerPoint Presentation.
  11. .pptx– PowerPoint Open XML Presentation.
  12. .avi– Audio Video Interleave File.
  13. .xml– XML File.
  14. .gif– Graphics Interchange Format File.
  15. .xls– Excel Spreadsheet.
  16. .dbf– Database File.
  17. .sql– Structured Query Language Data File.
  18. .exe– Windows Executable File.
  19. .html– Hypertext Markup Language File.
  20. .asp– Active Server Page.
  21. .tmp– Temporary File.
  22. .bak– Backup File.


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 Important Computer Shortcut Keys:

Shortcut KeysDescription
Ctrl+EscOpens the START menu
Alt+F4Close the currently active program
Alt+EnterOpen the Properties of the selected item
Alt+TabSwitch between open programs
F5Refresh the current program window
F2Rename a selected file
Ctrl+Shift+EscOpens Windows Task Manager


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