Chapter 2 Physical Features of India – CBSE / NCERT Class 9 Geography
In this article, we share notes on Physical features of India from Class 9 Geography. India has practically all major physical features of the earth, i.e. plains, mountains, plateaus, deserts, and islands. In India, we find different types of rocks; some are very hard like marble and some are very soft like soap stone. The color of soil varies from one place to the other because the soil is formed out of different types of rocks.This is all because of variations caused due to differences in the rock formation.You must be wondering how these physical features have been formed. So let’s study about physical features of India and how they have been formed.
India is a land of numerous physical features. The physical features of India have derived over several geological periods. The formation of physical features is explained with the help of some theories based on genuine evidence. One such reasonable theory is the “Theory of Plate tectonics”.
Theory of Plate tectonics
- According to this theory, the crust (upper part) of the earth has been formed out of seven major and some minor plates.
- The movement of the plates results in the building up of stresses within the plates and the continental rocks above, leading to folding, faulting, and volcanic activity. Basically, there are three types of plate movement
- Convergent boundary-Plates come towards each other and form the convergent
- Divergent boundary-Plates move away from each other and formthe divergent
- Transform Boundary-If plates move horizontally past each other and form transform boundary.
- India can be grouped as per the below physiographic divisions
- The Himalayan Mountains
- The Northern Plains
- The Peninsular Plateau
- The Coastal Plains
- The Islands
- The Indian Desert
So Class 9 Geography students, we will now discuss them one by one.
The Himalayan Mountains
- The northern borders of India are all covered by geologically young and structurally fold mountains.
- Theyaremost rugged and loftiest mountain barriers of the world.
- They cover a distance of about 2400 km.
- Their width varies from 400km in Kashmir to 150 km in Arunachal Pradesh. Height variations are greater in the eastern half than those in the western half
- The Himalayas are divided into three parts
- The Inner Himalayas isknown as ‘Himadri’.
- South of Himadri is called ‘Himachal’.
- The outer range is called ‘Shiwaliks’.
So Class 9 Geography students, we will talk in detail about the above Himalayas distribution:-
The Inner Himalayas ‘Himadri’
- With an average height of 6000 meters, it is northernmost and a continuous range.
- All famous peaks form part of Himadri; they all are asymmetrical in nature.
- Basically, they are made of granite.
- Numbers of glaciers are part of this, they are basically snow bound.
The lesser Himalayas ’Himachal’
- Southern part of Himadri forms Himachal, the most rugged mountain system
- They are made up of compressed and altered rocks.
- Height varies from 3700 to 4500 meters.
- Important ranges are PirPanjal range and Dhaula Dhar and the Mahabharata range
- Famous valleys are the Kashmir, theKangra, and Kullu valley in Himachal Pradesh
- It is famous for its hill station views
- These are the outermost range of Himalayas.
- Extending over a 10-50 km and height varying from 900 to 1100 meters.
- They are made up of unconsolidated sediments which come up along with the river.
- They are all covered with thick gravel and alluvium.
The other physio graphic divisions, we will discuss in our next 9th Class article. Keep watching the space.
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