NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Science Pollution of Air and Water
In the previous article, we have discussed air pollution and the global warming. Here, we will share notes on the ‘Effects of air pollution and water pollution’.
Effects of Air Pollution
- Global Warming– Increase in the amount of carbon dioxide and certain other gases in the atmosphere are responsible for a phenomenon called Global Warming.
- Depletion of Ozone Layer -Everyone is well versed with Ozone Layer. It is a layer of the atmosphere which protects both plant and animal life on the earth by absorbing harmful ultraviolet radiation of the sun, which may cause skin cancer. Freon’s are responsible for the depletion of the ozone layer.
- Effects on the plant: – Air pollution causes the long lasting and the harmful effects on the growth and development of plants. Few of them are listed as below:-
- Photochemical smog forms a layer on leaves and along with dust blocks the sunlight from being absorbed by the leaf surface, this layer blocks the absorption of carbon dioxide by the leaves and also affects the functioning of stomata, thereby reducing the rate of photosynthesis.
- Acid rain damages the plants and also causes the premature leaf fall.
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- Acid rain– When an air pollutant such as oxides of sulphur and nitrogen reacts with oxygen and water vapor of the atmosphere, they eventually form dilute solutions of sulphuric acid and nitric acid. Those acid mixes with rainwater and comes down usually in the form of acid rain. Acid forming gases and acid rain causes the below effect:-
- Destruction of vegetarian due to acidification of soil.
- Accelerated leaching of rocks and soils.
- The decay of limestone, marble and other building materials.
- Effect the human respiratory system.
- Effects on Animals:- The toxic air pollutants released into the atmosphere can cause and worsen respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in a human being. Some of the health effects of air pollution are given below:-
- Carbon monoxide easily combines with the hemoglobin in our blood and hampers the transport of oxygen within the body, which can lead to a headache, drowsiness, dizziness, and nausea.
- Exposure to high levels of suspended particulate matter, sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and other air pollutants can lead to respiratory diseases like lung cancer, asthma, and bronchitis.
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Prevention of Air Pollution.
Few steps that can take to prevent air pollution-
- Use of unleaded petrol to be encouraged.
- CNG vehicles should be used more.
- Regular pollution checks to be encouraged.
- Use of public transport and carpool should be encouraged.
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