NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Nutrition in Plants
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In this article, the following topic “Nutrition in the Plants” from Class 10 Science-Biology is discussed.
Nutrition in the Plants
- Green plants are autotrophic and synthesize their own food by the process of photosynthesis.
- The process, by which green plants make their own food from carbon dioxide and water by utilizing sunlight energy in the presence of chlorophyll, is called photosynthesis.
- Oxygen is released during photosynthesis.
The process of photosynthesis can be represented as:
- The process of photosynthesis takes place in the green leaves of a plant.
- The food is made by the green leaves of a plant in the form of a simple sugar called glucose.
- The extra glucose is changed into another food called starch. This starch is stored in the leaves of the plant.
- The green plants change sunlight energy into chemical energy by producing carbohydrates.
The photosynthesis takes place in the following steps:
- Absorption of sunlight energy by chlorophyll.
- Conversion of light energy into chemical energy, and splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen by light energy.
- Reduction of carbon dioxide by hydrogen to form carbohydrate like glucose by utilizing the chemical energy.
Conditions necessary for photosynthesis:
The conditions necessary for photosynthesis to take place are:
- Carbon dioxide
- Green leaves make starch as food. Starch gives a blue-black color with iodine solution.
Raw materials for photosynthesis:
The raw materials for photosynthesis are:
- Carbon dioxide
How the plants obtain carbon dioxide?
- There are a large number of tiny pores called stomata on the surface of the leaves of plants.
- The carbon dioxide gas enters the leaves of the plant through the stomata present on their surface.
- Each stomatal pore is circumvented by a dyad of guard cells.
- When water flows into the guard cells, they swell, become bend and cause the pore to open.
- On the other hand, when guard cells lose water, they contracts, become straight and close the stomatal pores.
How the plants obtain water for photosynthesis:
- The water necessitates by the plants for photosynthesis is absorbed by the root of the plants from the soil through the process of osmosis.
- The water absorbed by the roots of the plants is conveyed upward through the xylem vessels to the leaves where it reaches the photosynthetic cells.
- The plants also need other raw materials such as nitrogen, phosphorus, iron, and magnesium, etc., for building their body.
- The plants take these materials from the soil.
- Nitrogen is an essential element used by the plants to make proteins and another compound.
Site of photosynthesis: Chloroplasts
- A chloroplast is a chlorophyll-containing organelle found in plant cells and some algae.
- Chloroplasts are present in the photosynthetic cells (mesophyll cells) of green plants. These cells contain more chlorophyll than other plant cells.
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