CBSE Class 10 Science Notes & Solutions – Electricity
Class 10 – Chapter 12 Electricity : In this article, we will discuss an important topic from Class 10 Science – Electricity.
Now, the first question arises in the mind of the 10th Class Science student, can we live without electricity? The answer is ‘No’.
What is Electricity?
Electricity is an important source of energy in the modern times. It is used in our homes for lighting, operating fans, trains, etc. The ability to attract anything is called electric charges.
It has been scientifically proven that the electric charges are of two types- positive charges and negative charges. The charge acquired by a glass rod is called positive charge and the charge acquired by an Ebonite rod is called negative charge.
Let’s discuss the property for electric charges are
- Opposite charges attract each other.
- Similar charges repel each other.
The SI unit of electric charge is Coulomb which is denoted by the letter C. All the matter around positively charged particles called protons and negatively charged particles called electrons.
A proton possesses a positive charge of 1.6 X Whereas electron possesses a negative charge 1.6 X .
Conductors and Insulators
A conductor is a substance through which electricity can flow. Eg:- Silver, copper, aluminum, etc.
Insulators are the substances through which electricity cannot flow are called insulators. Eg:- Glass,Ebonite, rubber, etc.
Moving forward, now understand how the conductors work?
All the conductors have some electrons which are loosely held by the nuclei of their atoms. These electrons are called “Free electrons” and can move from one atom to another atom throughout the conductor. The presence of “free electrons” in a substance makes it a conductor.
Electricity can be divided into two parts:-
- Static electricity-In this electrifying, the electric charges remain at rest as they do not move.
- Current electricity-In this electrifying, the electric charges are in The electricity we use it in our homes is called current electricity.
Work done in moving a unit positive charge from infinity to a point is called the electric potential at that point in an electric field.
The potential is denoted by the symbol ‘V’ and its unit is volt.
The amount of work done in moving a unit charge from one point to the other point is defined as the potential difference between two points.
Potential difference =work done/quantity of charged moved.
The SI unit of potential difference is volt and which is denoted by the letter V.
The potential difference between two points is said to be 1 volt if 1 joule of work is done in moving 1 coulomb of electric charge from one point to the other.
The potential difference is measured by means of an instrument called aVoltmeter. A voltmeter has a high resistance so that it takes a negligible current from the circuit. Voltage is the other name for potential difference.
In the next article, we will discuss the further topics of Class 10 Science Electricity. Keep watching the space for more.
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