CBSE Class 8 Science – Age of Adolescence | NCERT Solutions
CBSE Class 8 Science Online classes: It is futile to imagine life without emotion. The emotions and emotional expression is a condition of the human. But there are various patterns of response and expressivity, and emotional development has its own characteristics throughout the life cycle. Happy, sad, fear, excitement, anger, worry, embarrassment and irritation all are emotions expressed by humans.
The endocrine system is one of the organ systems that cause us to experience all these emotions. In this article for Class 8 science, we will discuss Endocrine system and hormones in detail. You can visit our previous article 8th Class science “Cell its structure, and its function”.
It is the collection of specialized organs that secrete particular chemical substances called glands. These glands are located at specific places inside our bodies. The chemical substances released by these glands are called hormones. Hormones are released directly into the bloodstream and act as chemical messengers.
The major glands that make up the human endocrine system are pituitary, thyroid, adrenals, pancreas, ovaries, and testes.
Below is the diagrammatic representation of the human endocrine system
The pituitary gland –It is located at the base of the brain. It is called the master gland of the endocrine system because it releases hormones that control the activities of the other endocrine glands.
The adrenal Gland-It is called the gland of emergency because it releases the hormone epinephrine or adrenaline which prepares the body to act when we are stressed or in a dangerous situation. This hormone makes us experience emotional states such as anger and excitement.
It is also known as fight-or-flight hormone. The changes bought by these glands are widespread, very rapid and lasting for very short period. Some changes are listed below:-
- Increase in heart rate
- Increases overall blood sugar level
- Overall increase in body energy level
Now, we will discuss the role of few hormones in our body.
- Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)-It stimulates the growth and functions of the thyroid gland.
- Growth hormone (GH)-It stimulates the growth and development of the body.
- Thyroxin-It regulates body metabolism and plays an important role in growth and development. The inability of the body to produce this hormone results in the disease called goiter which caused swelling in the neck.
- Adrenaline-It helps the defense of the body in the emergency situation.
- Insulin-It regulates the sugar level in blood. The inability of the body to produce this hormone results in the disease called diabetes.
- Oestrogen-It controls the development of secondary sexual characteristics like the development of breasts in the female.
- Testosterone-It controls the development of secondary sexual characteristics like facial hair in males.
During the period of adolescence, hormones play a very important role in the growth and development of the body. For a detailed explanation click CBSE Class 8th Science.
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