NCERT & CBSE For Class 6 Science Parts of a plant Chapter – 7
Parts of a plant
A typical plant has different parts in its body viz, Roots, stem, leaves, flowers and fruits. The part which is present under ground is known as roots. Parts that are present above the ground are stem, leaves, buds, flowers, fruits and seeds.
The roots are mostly seen underground and brown in color. The tiny threadlike structures over the roots are the root hairs. The tip of the root is covered by a root cap, which is preventive in function. Root and the root hairs together form the root system.
Features of root
- The Roots grow towards the soil and away from the light. Hence, it is known as geotropic structure.
- The Root does not possess green colour pigment, the chlorophyll. It cannot produce food.
- Root does not breed leaves, buds or flowers.
- Roots with their root hairs absorb water and minerals from the soil.
Types of roots
There are two types of roots – tap root and fibrous roots.. Learn more about Roots – www.takshilalearning.com
The stem is the part of the plant lies above the ground. Stem bears the leaves, flowers and fruits of a plant. It is almost soft, green or woody. It grows towards the sunlight. It moves upward from the ground.
Features of Stem
- The stem supports the entire plant to stand as a whole.
- They are always phototrophic. i.e. they grow towards sunlight.
- Stem has nodes( the place where a leaf or branch arises) separated by internodes (gap between two nodes). Stem support branches, leaves, flowers and fruits.
Leaves are flat, thin and green in colour. Leaves develop on branches. These are green coloured structures rich in chloroplasts. As they have chlorophyll in them, they are considered to be a kitchen or food factories of the plant. The Photosynthesis process occurs in the leaves. Each leaf bears a bud in its Axil.
Parts of a Leaf
- The point of attachment of the leaf to the node on the stem is called as leaf base.
- The flat part of the leaf exposed to sunlight is called as the lamina.
- The Stalk of the leaf is called as the petiole.
- A thin structure which extends from the leaf base to the tip on the lamina is called as the mid-vein. Many tiny thread like structures extend to the leaf margin from the midrib. These are known as veinlets. Venation is an Arrangement of veins on the lamina of the leaf. Veins support in transportation of food and water.
- Leaf has Two types of arrangement of veins on the leaf are parallel venation and reticulate venation.
Types of leaves
Leaves can be simple leaf or compound leaves.
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Flower is a reproductive structure of the plant. The flower has sepals, petals, stamens and pistil. Flower helps the plant to give rise to new plants by the process of sexual reproduction.
Parts of a flower
- Sepals are the green leaf-like structures surrounding the bud .
- Petals are coloured parts of a flower . Helps in attracting insects.
- Stamen – The male reproductive part of a flower, It carries pollen grains.
- Pistil – The female reproductive part of a flower , It carries ovules.
Fertilisation occurs with the union of male and female cells in a flower to produce a fruit. Fruit is generaly the fertilised ovary. Fruit grows in size to store sugars. Ovules develop into seeds. So, fruits enclose seeds.
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