CBSE Class 12 Business Studies DIRECTING: CONCEPT, FEATURES, PRINCIPLES AND IMPORTANCE
This article twirls around one of the crucial topics of CBSE Class 12 Business Studies, which is Directing. Directing basically means giving directions/guidance. In this article we will discuss the Concept.
CONCEPT OF DIRECTING
Directing is a key managerial function performed by the managers along with planning, organizing, staffing and controlling. Directing involves giving instructions and guidance to subordinates, supervising them with strong leadership and motivating them with various ways so they contribute to the best of their ability for the attainment of organizational goals. It is an executive function concerned with putting the organization plans into action. It means directing involves supervision, motivation, leadership and communication.
DEFINITION OF DIRECTING
According to Koontz and O’Donnell,“Direction is a complex function that includes all those activities which are designed to encourage subordinates to work effectively and efficiently”.
According to Ernest Dale,“ Direction is telling people what to do and seeing that they do it to the best of their ability”.
CHARACTERISTICS/FEATURES OF DIRECTING
- Direction initiates action – Directing leads to execution of plans by taking necessary actions. It initiates organized action and convert plans into effective actions for the attainment of goals.
- Directing is a continuous function – A manager/boss cannot just rest after giving instructions or orders. He has to supervise, guide and motivate his subordinates’ or team. He should take steps continuously to ensure that actions carried out properly and the performance is according to measuring standards.
- Directing takes place at all levels of management–Directing needs to be performed at every level of management. Every manager has to perform at their respective levels. However, lower level managers have to spend more time on directing as compared to higher levels.
- Directing flows from top to bottom – Instructions and directives initiated at the top level flow to the bottom level through the organizational hierarchy. In fact, every manager gets instructions from his boss and gives instructions to his subordinates.
PRINCIPLES OF DIRECTION
- Harmony of Objectives –Every individual is assigned a particular task which he is responsible to accomplish. He will do it better if he thinks that it is going to achieve his personal goals which may be different from the organizational goals.
- Maximum Individual Contribution – the directing techniques must help every employee contribute to his maximum potential for the achievement of organizational objectives. They should bring out untrapped energies of the employees for the efficiency of the organization.
- Unity of Command – One superior is for giving instructions to subordinates. If he receives orders from more than one superior, he will get confused and will not perform well.
- Appropriateness of Techniques – Appropriate motivational and leadership techniques should be used based on people needs, capabilities, attitudes and situational variables.
- Managerial communication – Effective communication is an important for effective direction. Clear instructions and feedback is necessary for proper execution of action. Two-way communication gives subordinates to chance express their feelings, and share ideas, suggestions, complaints, grievances and boss will understand and take actions properly.
- Use of informal communication – the managers/boss must use informal relations for getting correct feedback from the employees. The effectiveness of direction would also increase by informal communication.
- Effective leadership – A good leader is the biggest asset for any team. Effective leadership produces best results with their team and subordinates. As a leader, the boss should guide and counsel the workers not only on the work problems but also the personal problems of the subordinates.
- Follow through–Follow up is as important as giving instructions. Manager should also follow up by reviewing continuously and check whether instructions are properly executed or implemented as per instructions given. Take suitable actions, modifications may be made in the instructions already given.
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IMPORTANCE OF DIRECTING
Directing is the essence of managing and coordination is the by-product of good directing. Directing is an creative function as it converts plans into actions with abilities and efforts of resources. The end result of direction has been summed up under the following points:
- Initiation of actions – Execution of plans begin when the directing function is performed. Planning and organizing are preparatory functions while directing is executive function. Directing is rightly called the life spark as it sets plans into motions.
- Integration of employees’ efforts –Coordination and communication is required to utilize maximum contribution of employees’ efforts. The people working in the organization have to be told what to do, how to do and when they have to do. Directing will coordinate their energies and arrange as per their working model. Many Complexities arises due to conflict between personal goals and organizational goals. By performing the direction function, the manager can achieve integration between the individual and organizational goals.
- Motivation and leadership–Directing deals with the motivation of human factor, so it is a very delicate function. In order to achieve the cooperation of workers, it is essential to understand their nature and needs. Financial and non-financial incentives may be provided to the workers to satisfy their needs. In addition, understanding with the workers may be achieved by providing for two-way communication.
- Stability and Balance – Effective directing helps to bring stability and balance in the enterprise by fostering cooperation and commitment among the employees.
- Facilitates changes – Employees often resist changes due to fear of adverse effects on their employment and promotion. Effective directing through motivation, leadership, and communication help employees to cope up with changes in the environment.
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