What are 2D Shapes? – Names, Definition, Properties, Formulas
2D Shapes Definition
A 2D shape, or 2-Dimensional shapes, are figures that only have two dimensions – length and breadth. Since they have only two dimensions, they are always flat figures. Some common examples include squares and circles. In this blog, we will learn more about the various types of 2D shapes.
A polygon is a two-dimensional shape made up of straight lines joined together to form a closed shape. As such, all 2D figures with straight lines come under polygons, including squares, rectangles, and triangles, but it does not include circles or semi-circles since they are curved figures.
All polygons have sides, vertices (corners), and interior angles. Polygons are two-dimensional forms with at least three straight sides, such as triangles, squares, and quadrilaterals. The diagram below depicts the most common 2D forms we encounter.
Some basic 2D shapes are:
Let’s have a look at these forms one by one.
A circle is a closed two-dimensional object wherein all points on the circle are equidistant from the “center.” The distance between a circle’s center and any point on the circle is called the radius. Common examples of circles in our day-to-day lives include wheels, pizzas, or coins.
Why don’t you also think of some examples of circles that you see in your everyday life and note them in your notebook?
A triangle is a three-sided polygon that includes three vertices and three edges. The sum of a triangle’s three angles is always 180 degrees—the most common example of a triangle from our lives in a pyramid.
A quadrilateral is a four-sided polygon. There are many types of quadrilaterals that we will keep learning about throughout school. The two most basic quadrilaterals that we will find out about in this blog are squares and rectangles.
1. Square – A square is a four-sided polygon in which all sides are equal in length and have all adjacent sides make 90° angles. A square’s diagonals also bisect each other at 90 degrees. Common examples of squares in our everyday lives can be a game board, a table coaster, or a cushion.
2. Rectangle – A rectangle is a two-dimensional form with four sides that are equal and parallel to one another. A rectangle’s angles are all 90 degrees. Common examples of rectangles from our daily lives include a pillow, TV box, or mobile phone.
Properties of 2d shapes
2D Shapes: Properties
|2D Shapes (2d shapes names)||Properties of 2D Shapes|
2D Shapes Formulas
2D Shapes: Area and Perimeter
The space encompassed within a 2D form is its area. The whole length of a 2D shape’s border is its perimeter.
The formulae for calculating the area and perimeter of a few typical 2D forms are shown in the table below:
|2D Shape (2d shapes names)||Area||Perimeter|
|Circle||A = π × r2,
‘r’ is the radius of the circle
‘π’ is a constant value equals 22/7 (or 3.142)
|Perimeter (or Circumference) = 2πr|
|Triangle||Area = ½ (Base × height)||Perimeter = a1 + a2 + a3
a1, a2, a3 are three sides of triangle
|Square||Area = a2
‘a’ is the side of the square
|Perimeter = 4 × a|
|Rectangle||Area = l × b
‘l’ is the length of the rectangle
‘b’ is the breadth of the rectangle
|Perimeter = 2 (l + b)|
1. Calculate the square area that has a side length equal to 6 inches.
length of side of square, a = 4 inches
Area of square = side2 = a2
Substitute the value of length of side,
Area of square = a2 = (4)2 = 16 in2
2.Calculate the area of a circle which has a radius of 10.5 cm (π=22/7)
Radius of circle = 10.5 cm
Area of circle = πr2
We know that
Area of circle = (22/7) x (10.5)2 = 11 x 3 x 10.5 = 346.5 sq.cm.
3.Calculate the perimeter of the rectangle whose length and breadth are 10 cm and 5 cm, respectively. Also, calculate its area.
Length, l = 10 cm
Breadth, b = 5 cm
Calculate area and perimeter
Area of rectangle,
Area = l x b = 10 x 5 = 50 cm2
Perimeter of rectangle,
Perimeter = 2(l + b) = 2(10 + 5) = 2 x 15 = 30 cm
4. List some differences between 2d shapes and 3d shapes.
We know that flat figures are 2d forms and solid figures are 3d shapes. A few comparisons of these two sorts of forms are provided below.
|2d Shapes||3d Shapes|
|2d shapes only have 2 dimensions – length and breadth in case of polygons and radii in case of curved figures.||3D shapes have 3 dimensions – length, breadth, and height.|
|In 2d shapes, we can calculate areas and perimeters using formulae.||In 3d shapes, we can calculate volumes, curved surface areas, lateral surface areas, or total surface areas using formulae.|
|Examples – Circle, Triangle, Square, and Rectangle.||Examples – Cylinder, Cone, Cube, Cuboid, and Sphere.|
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